Reported Speech is used to report information that we see, hear or are told.
The reported speech is to shift everything back by one tense to show that it is being reported, even if what the person says is already in the past. By changing the tense, we show that we are using reported speech.
I live in London – She said she lived in London.
The only times we do not shift the tense back is when we report scientific facts or if what we are reporting is still true.
The sun rises in the east – He said the sun rises in the east.
I’m going to the doctor tomorrow – She said that she is going to the doctor tomorrow.
|Direct speech||– Reported speech|
|Present simple||– Past simple|
|Present continuous||– Past continuous|
|Present Perfect||– Past Perfect|
|Present perfect continuous||– Past Perfect continuous|
|Past Simple||– Past Perfect simple|
|Past continuous||– Past Perfect Continuous|
|Past perfect simple||– Past Perfect simple (*no tense change)|
|Past perfect continuous||– Past Perfect continuous (*no tense change)|
|Must/Have to||– Had to|
|Direct speech||– Reported Speech|
|This/that + noun||– the/that|
|This/that + verb||– it|
|These/those + noun||– the/those|
|These/Those + verb||– they|
|Verb + these/those||– them|
Exercise 1.- Grammar
Change these direct quotations into reported speech.
“You can drive my car” my mother said.
“Your exam results will be released next Friday,” they said.
“You have to stop smoking,” my father said.
My father said, “He needs to do more exercise.”
“Are you going to the gym?” my friend asked.
“Is he going to London?” she asked.
“Are you taking the FCE exam next month?”my teacher asked,
h)“Where is your handbag?” my friend asked.