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Mixed Conditionals & Conjunctions

A mixed conditional is when one type of conditional is used with another.

We usually mix the 3rd conditional with the 2nd conditional. Doing this shows how a different past action would have a different present result.

a) If I had passed my medical exams, I would be a doctor today.

This speaker didn’t pass his medical exams, so he isn’t a doctor today.

The form is: sb + past perfect + ob, sb + past simple + ob.

Another type of mixed conditional is when we mix the 2nd conditional with the 3rd conditional. This is to show a hypothetical present would have had a hypothetical past result.

a) If I had a car, I would have picked you up last night.

This speaker doesn’t have a car, so was unable to pick their friend up the night before.

The form is: sb + past simple + ob, sb + past perfect + ob.

These past tenses in these conditionals are not the real past, instead they show a hypothetical past action and an imaginary present situation, and a hypothetical present situation with a hypothetical past result.

We use them to talk about regret or missed opportunities.

If is a conjunction, whose purpose is to link two sentences.

Conditionals don’t have to have if. They can have other linking words like:

Provided that: if or only if

As long as: if or only if

Unless: if not or except if

In case: because I/you/he/she/it/we/they might…

b) Provided that you study hard, you will pass the exam.

c) As long as you work hard, you will do well.

d) We will meet in the park tomorrow unless it rains.

e) Take an umbrella in case it rains.

 

Exercise 1

 Complete the sentences below by adapting the word in brackets, or filling in a word or phrase.

a) If I had had more time when I was younger, I …………………….. (be able to) speak another language today.

b) Provided …………… you are not late, you can come with us.

c) If I had money on my phone, I …………………….. (phone) you last night.

d) …………………….. you are careful, you may use my car.

e) If my parents …………………….. (meet), I wouldn’t be here today.

f) Unless it is sunny, we …………………….. (go) to the museum tomorrow.

g) Please bring a jacket in …………… it gets cold.

h) If I had passed all my exams, I …………………….. (be repeat) the last school year.

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